In the last quarter of the 20th century, scholars such as Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece and argued against its authenticity. The first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who also performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. La Toccata et fugue en ré mineur, BWV 565, est une œuvre pour orgue écrite par Jean-Sébastien Bach entre 1703 et 1707. [42] In 1867, the Bach Gesellschaft included it in Band 15 of its complete edition of Bach's works. Les œuvres pour orgue d'Allemagne du Nord de cette époque sont caractérisées par la présence du Stylus phantasticus, dérivé de l'improvisation. The only near-contemporary source is an undated copy by Johannes Ringk, a pupil of Johann Peter Kellner. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. for the opening baroque mordent of J. S. Bach's Toccata. [60] US record companies seemed faster in putting BWV 565 forward as Bach's best known organ piece. [19][20], As was common practice for German music of the 17th century, the intended registration is not specified, and performers' choices vary from simple solutions such as organo pleno to exceedingly complex ones, like those described by Harvey Grace. [112], BWV 565 was used as film music well before the sound film era, becoming a cliché to illustrate horror and villainy. Spitta considered the fugue "particularly suited to the organ, and more especially effective in the pedal part." [113] The piece has appeared in many more films, including 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954), in which it is played by Captain Nemo on the organ of the Nautilus, before the submarine's pitiless and apparently unmotivated attack on a ship. [85] In C. L. Hilgenfeldt's biography it is merely listed among the published works. References consisting of a last name and date refer to an entry in the Sources section below: "Toccata and Fugue in D minor" redirects here. Alternatively, a date as late as the 1750s has been suggested. In Ringk's manuscript the upper stave is written down using the soprano clef (as was common in the time when the manuscript originated), where printed editions use the treble clef. [1], A wide, and often conflicting, variety of analyses has been published about the piece: for instance, in literature on organ music, it is often described as some sort of program music depicting a storm, while in the context of Disney's Fantasia, it was promoted as absolute music, nothing like program music depicting a storm. From Hilgenfeldt in 1850, to Elgar in the 1920s, to Basso in the late 1970s, the extraordinary popularity of the piece seems to have taken scholars and musicians by surprise. [6] In his critical commentary for Breitkopf & Härtel's 21st-century revised edition of the score, Jean-Claude Zehnder narrows the time of origin of the manuscript down to around the middle of the first half of the 1730s, based on an analysis of the evolution of Ringk's handwriting. Structure. [52], The work was first recorded (in abridged form as "Toccata and Finale") by John J. McClellan on the Salt Lake Tabernacle organ in Salt Lake City in late August or early September 1910 by the Columbia Graphophone Company, who released it in the U.S. in 1911 on Columbia 10-inch disc A945 and in the U.K. on Columbia-Rena disc 1704,[53] which is one of the first commercial pipe organ recordings. [28] However, according to 21st-century statistical analysis, Wilhelm Friedemann was even less likely to have been the composer of the Fugue than Kellner. Several compositions by him survive, and he is also notable today for his copies of numerous keyboard works by Georg Böhm, Johann Pachelbel, Johann Heinrich Buttstett, Dieterich Buxtehude, and other important masters. 8:15)[17] and execution times of over 10:30[18] exist. [151] In 2000, Mark Argent proposed a scordatura five-stringed cello instead. This notion inspired a new theory of adaptation: the reconstruction. An orchestration was performed in Carnegie Hall in 1928, Henry Wood (pseudonymously, as "Paul Klenovsky") arranged his orchestration before the end of the decade. En particulier, la source la plus ancienne conservée est une copie par Johannes Ringk à qui on attribue une réputation sulfureuse[réf. Although only 17 bars long, it progresses through five tempo changes. [10][15], A multi-sectional coda follows, marked Recitativo. First published in 1833 through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, the piece quickly became popular, and is now one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. [81][82] From the 1950s to the first decades of the 21st century, there were half a dozen recordings of Tausig's piano version,[83] and several dozen of Busoni's.


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