Recall that the shorthand for A1, B1, and C1 is Ag|AgNO, OCP tests operate under a key assumption: the potential of one of the reference electrodes does not drift. Taking high-precision Metrohm ion chromatography to an even higher level of autonomy, the Process IC can connect up to 20 sample streams and provide reliable multicomponent results for superior process control. Therefore, while it is possible to establish relative stability between two reference electrodes with an OCP test, it is not possible to tell if both electrodes are drifting at the same rate. Figure 3. Learn how NIRS can boost your productivity and reduce costs in your QC lab. Find the right spectrometer for your requirements. High-quality potentiostat/galvanostat instruments with a small footprint, Modular potentiostat/galvanostat instruments for any requirements in electrochemical research, Multichannel potentiostat/galvanostat instruments for simultaneous measurements, Compact, PC-controlled portable potentiostat for education and basic applications. 2741 Campus Walk Avenue Liquid handling instrument for standalone use or integration into existing Metrohm systems, Manually controlled, high-precision instrument for all liquid handling tasks. We love to tackle analytical challenges at Metrohm Process Analytics. Even with the use of a frit, reference electrodes used for non-aqueous systems encounter the following problems: To alleviate the effects of these common problems, several methods have been proposed, each of which has its own shortcomings (see Table 1). Ionenstrasse An air-tight way to mount the silver wire. This ensures proper rehydration and conditioning of the bulb. Our quality service ranges from consulting and application support to installation, training, preventive maintenance and repair service. Modular analyzer platform for ultimate flexibility in customized process monitoring. TIP: During the course of an electrochemical experiment, electrogenerated products can deposit on the reference electrode frit. Switzerland. Entry-level ion chromatograph for water analysis and utilization as a training tool. Reinventing volumetric Karl Fischer titration: OMNIS KF! High-end ion chromatography system for research applications and method development, Compact ion chromatography system for routine analysis. The use of a reference electrode with plugged pores will often cause potentiostat issues. All three Ag|AgNO. This electrode can be used with non-aqueous reference electrolytes (lithium chloride or tetraethylammonium bromide). Find upgrades, patches, documents, and language versions for your software here. Frit pore plugging. New volumetric Karl Fischer titrator for safe, easy, and fast water content determination, High-end titrators for determining any water content from 0.001 to 100%, Compact, stand-alone volumetric (> 0.1% water) or coulometric (down to 0.001% water) titrator with integrated touch-screen control unit, Basic volumetric Karl Fischer titrator for simple, safe, and reliable routine water content determinations, Entry-level titrator for coulometric (water content: 0.001 to 1%) or volumetric (up to 100%) water determination. When performing electrochemical experiments in non-aqueous media, finding the ideal reference electrode can be challenging. IC is the method of choice when HPLC fails. Metrohm AG While large drifts (1 mV/min) are certainly due to the instability of a reference electrode, the origin of small drifts (less than 0.2 mV/min) observed in both acetonitrile and dichloromethane is not clear. By continuing to use the website, you agree to the use of cookies. CH-9100 Herisau Relative Stability of Pseudo1 Reference Electrode with respect to the Ag|AgCl|KCl (saturated)|frit, Figure 5. Here, we will describe constructing and using such a non-aqueous reference electrode. Our new blog – Tips & tricks, application expertise, and more. Find the right IC system for your requirements here. When the fritted glass tube is removed at a later time for another experiment, be sure to replace the solution inside the fritted glass tube as well as the solution inside the sealable container. Instrument for determining the oxidation stability of natural oils and fats, Instrument for determining the oxidation stability of biodiesel and biodiesel blends, Instrument for determining the thermostability of PVC. It is interesting to note that if the solvent polarity is lowered, a high liquid junction potential drift will form at the aqueous/non-aqueous interface, rendering the Ag|AgCl|KCl (saturated)|frit reference electrode redox potential unstable; therefore, only reference electrodes that utilize acetonitrile for both the bulk electrolyte solvent and reference electrode solvent (A1, B1, and Pseudo1) can be compared to the stable Ag|AgCl|KCl (saturated)|frit reference electrode in this manner to determine their stability (see Table 2). Store the electrode in the aqueous storage solution recommended by the manufacturer. Standard Size (9 mm OD) Ag Non-Aqueous Reference Electrode Kit, Figure 2. Application news, practical tips for the laboratory, and more. Find the right electrochemical solution for your requirements. The silver pseudo reference electrode functions because a natural oxide layer forms on the silver wire, creating a redox reaction whose shorthand notation is Ag|Ag, This application will focus on reference electrodes created using a silver wire. Pine Research Instrumentation LowProfile (3.5 mm OD) Ag Non-Aqueous Reference Electrode Kit. Near-infrared spectroscopy analyzers for routine analysis of chemical and physical properties, Handheld spectrometer for quick and easy identification of unknown substances, B&W Tek offers a complete line of high performance laboratory, portable and handheld Raman systems. It is recommended that a non-aqueous reference electrode be calibrated daily using a known redox pair such as ferrocene in a standard solution (1-5 mM ferrocene in 100 mM NBu 4 PF 6 in CH 3 CH). Relative Stability of Reference Electrodes A1, B1, and C1 with respect to the Ag|AgCl|KCl (saturated)|frit, Figure 4. For example, the silver chloride reference electrode, whose shorthand electrochemical reaction is written as Ag|AgCl|KCl (saturated), is the most widely used practical reference electrode. Storage in the respective reference electrolyte. For the different frits tested herein (mini-ceramic, fine glass, or ceramic), there is no significant impact on the stability of the reference electrode.


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