He also suggested that ‘We derive pleasure from observing how the conventions of a genre are manipulated’. Andrew Goodwin - conventions that exist within music videos are according to musical genre (performances in rock videos; choreography in pop). Genres have clear, stable identities and borders. Each theorist has published ideas and arguments around key media industries and concepts relating to them. It should serve the interests of, and be in control of the working class. Genres must change, innovate in order to succeed. Michael Wesch – examines digital anthropology (man’s history with web technology) and concludes that new Media creates new ways of knowing each other and of knowing ourselves; We live in an MTV generation – narcissism, materialism, short attention spans – a product of web 2.0. The working class by definition holds power in a socialist society. Gramsci – Suggested that dominant ideologies can change over time, moving away from heritage and tradition if enough audiences/groups enforce their own discourse (We media). Cyber dystopias centre around the principles of the individual losing control, becoming dependent and being unable to stop change. Todorov, T - Identified 5 stages of narrative/story and the notion that plots have a circular narrative. Mulvey believes that women take on the male gaze because they view media from the perspective of men – they then view other women the way men would and objectify them in the same way. "In video our attention to the song shapes the way we perceive the image, but to an equal extent what we attend to in the image helps determine how we hear the music". Understanding Media introduced a phrase that McLuhan has become known for: “The medium is the message.” This notion represented a novel take on attitudes toward media—that the media themselves are instrumental in shaping human and cultural experience. A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence. The main principles of this theory can be slated as below: Your email address will not be published. Therefore, the audience is temporary and definitely not stable. Some critics say that this diminished audiences’ interest in the film’s end. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Claimed there are 4 methods for measuring audiences. Defleur - Development of the hypodermic needle effect - he stated that it was dependent on the psychology of the individual (psychodynamic), Fiske     Stated that there are 5 factors that determine the social position of an audience. Dan Gillmor - For years ‘Big Media’ (corporations such as Sky, Google and the BBC) have had control over who produces and shares media, and the information that people get. Carol Vernallis describes how verbal, musical, and visual codes combine in music video to create defining representations of race, class, gender, sexuality, and performance. McLennon - Developed theory of ideology and that 3 conditions needed to be present. Blumer & Katz -  Uses and Gratifications Theory the media have a limited effect on their audiences because audiences are able to exercise control over their media consumption. e.g. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. Through a variety of antismoking campaigns, the health risks of smoking became a public agenda. David Altheide and Robert Snow, Media Worlds in the Postjournalism Era (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991), 9–11. Pam Cook (1985), the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have: Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution.


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